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苏格兰的 散步路径与瀑布

 

The Cauldron Linn

海釜瀑布

NT005 988

 

In a letter written in 1787, Robert Burns described a visit to the Cauldron Linn:

After breakfast we made a party to go and see Cauldron Linn, a remarkable cascade in the Devon about fives miles from Harviestoun; and after spending one of the most pleasant days I ever had in my life, I returned to Stirling in the evening.

The falls that once used to be on everyone’s itinerary, are no longer marked on any maps, and they are awkward to reach because the paths are overgrown. The best approach is from Muckhart Mill, but they can also be tackled from the footpaths along the spectacular Devon Valley Railway.

Harviestown itself, Burns would have been pleased to know, is now the location of an award-winning craft beer brewery. Had it been open in his day, Burns would have been sure to pay it a visit on his way to the Cauldron Linn.

罗伯特·彭斯(Robert Burns)在他1787年所写的一封信中描述了探访海釜瀑布的一次经历:

早餐以后,我们一行人结伴去看海釜瀑布,这座景色宜人的瀑布位于德文河(Devon)上,距离哈维伊斯特恩(Harviestoun)约五英里。在那里,我度过了生命中最愉快的一段时光,然后我于当晚回到了斯特灵(Stirling)。

这座瀑布曾经是每个人的必游之处,然而现在已无法在任何地图上找到它的踪迹,并且由于通往瀑布的路上杂草丛生,也不易到达。最佳的路线是从莫克哈特磨坊(Muckhart Mill)过去,不过沿着景色壮观的德文谷铁路(Devon Valley Railway)

旁的小径也可到达。 现在的哈维伊斯特恩有一家屡获殊荣的精酿啤酒厂,彭斯如果获知这一消息肯定会很高兴。如果当年已有这家啤酒厂,彭斯一定会在去海釜瀑布的路上造访这里。

Linn of Dee

迪伊瀑布

NO 062 895
At the Linn of Dee the river narrows to a little over a meter in width. The channel is cut in schistose rocks and below the present falls there is a series of round pools. Downstream is a small dyke that probably marks the site of the original fall. It is possible when the water is low to step across the stream safely however it was here that young Byron caught his lame foot and was saved from a fatal fall by a companion.

In the course of one of his summer excursions up Dee-side, he had an opportunity of seeing still more of the wild beauties of the Highlands having been taken by his mother through the romantic passes that lead to Invercauld, and as far up as the small waterfall, called the Linn of Dee. Here his love of adventure had nearly cost him his life. As he was scrambling along a declivity that overhung the fall some heather caught his lame foot, and he fell. Already he was rolling downward, when the attendant luckily got hold of him, and was but just in time to save him from being killed.
Lord Byron his letters and journals by Thomas Moore

The ornamental granite bridge at the Linn of Dee was opened by Queen Victoria in I857

河流在迪伊瀑布这里变得仅有一米多宽,河道两旁是片状的岩石,而在如今的瀑布下面有一系列圆形的水池。下游处有一个小堤坝,这很有可能就是瀑布原址的所在。当河水较浅时,人们可以安全地趟水渡过,然而当年正是在这里,年轻的拜伦(Byron)由于他的跛脚被钩住而险些摔倒丧命,所幸一位同伴救了他。

一年夏天,他北上迪伊河畔旅行,途中他有机会见识到了更多苏格兰高原的荒野美景。他的母亲带他穿越了通往因弗考尔德(Invercauld)的富有浪漫气息的山道,然后最远去到了一座被称为迪伊瀑布的小瀑布。在这里,他对探险的热爱差点葬送了他的性命。当时他正沿着悬于瀑布之上的斜坡往上攀爬,不料一些石南钩住了他的跛脚。他因此摔倒并滚下斜坡,说时迟那时快,一名随从及时抓住了他,才令他幸免于难。

摘自《拜伦勋爵的信件与日记》,托马斯·莫尔(Thomas Moore)著

1857年,维多利亚女王为迪伊瀑布上那座美观的花岗岩石桥揭幕。

The Falls of the Bruar

布鲁尔瀑布

NN 818 663
In the late summer of 1787, Robert Burns set out on a tour of the Scottish Highlands. He had been invited to stay at Blair Castle, by the fourth Duke of Atholl; his lordship advised the poet to be sure to make the detour to view a local beauty spot, the necklace of falls known as Bruar Water.

Burns loved the falls, and declared later that these two or three days were the happiest of his life. He found Atholl picturesque and beautiful but was however critical of the lack of trees and shrubs. In true Burns style he wrote a poem to the Duke of Atholl, begging him to re-vegetate the treeless hillsides.

His poem with its jaunty characterisation of a highland stream provides a splendid memorial of his visit.

Would then, my noble master please
To grant my highest wishes,
He’ll shade my banks wi’ tow’ring trees
And bonie spreading bushes.
Delighted doubly then, my lord
You’ll wander on my banks,
And listen monie a grateful bird
Return you tuneful thanks.

Excerpt of Burn’s poem ‘The humble Petition of Briar Water’

The duke took note and the larch woods for which his estates became famous were created by Duke of Atholl, who became as known as the ‘planting duke’.

1787年夏末,罗伯特·彭斯动身去苏格兰高地旅行。阿瑟尔公爵(Duke of Atholl)邀请他下榻布莱尔城堡(Blair Castle),并请他务必绕道去参观一处当地名胜:布鲁尔河(Bruar Water)上的环状瀑布。

彭斯很喜欢这里的瀑布,并在日后宣称这是他生命中最快乐的两三天时光。他认为阿瑟尔风景如画、恬静怡人,但他也对当地缺少树木与灌木的情况提出了意见。他以典型的彭斯文风给阿瑟尔公爵写了一首诗,乞求他在这寸草不生的山坡上重新种植树木。

他的诗如同高原的泉水般轻快活泼,为他那次的行程留下了绝妙的纪念。

百木葱茏遍河畔,
两屏芊萰妆翠岸。
此乃头等沐吾生,
祈盼贵躬来成全。
他朝陶然碧水眷,
王府欲醉梦里愿。
苍林枝头栖百鸟,
莺啼燕舞诉恩缘。

摘自《布鲁尔河之不情之请》诗歌节选,彭斯 著

阿瑟尔公爵采纳了彭斯的提议,在河畔栽种了落叶松树林。他的领地不仅因此名声大噪,他也成为了众所周知的“植树公爵”。

Plodda Falls

普罗达瀑布

NH 277 248

 

Plodda Falls is the highest and most spectacular waterfall in the area, over forty meters high, they form the climax to a pleasant walk through a magnificent forest of Douglas Fir.

There are two trails from the car park. The Falls Walk takes about half-an-hour; the longer Tweedmouth Walk leads more comprehensively through the policies that contain magnificent specimen trees planted between 1895 and 1905. Many of these trees are considered to be of the highest quality in Britain, and the Douglas firs at around 200m tall are amongst the tallest.

The path leads to the top of the falls. The burn supplying the fall, seems unpromising at first, but soon a pleasant cascade of about eight meters is seen. Shortly after this it becomes apparent that the main river is far below in a deep gorge and that the burn will have to make a sensational descent if it is to join it. 

This it does, quite vertically, under a cast-iron ornamental bridge from which there is a view of the river thirty meters below.  A breathtaking sight.

普罗达瀑布高达四十米,是该地区最高也是最壮观的瀑布。步行穿过一片花旗松森林的途中,曲径通幽处的这座瀑布无疑是其中最大的亮点。

从停车场出发有两条路线。“瀑布散步道”(Falls Walk)需时半小时左右;而较长的“特威德茅斯步道”(Tweedmouth Walk)则能让游客获得更深入的体验,包括观赏到种植于1895年至1905年之间的参天大树。这些树中有许多被认为是英国质量最高的树,并且高达200米左右的花旗松也是英国最高大的树木之一。

步道通往瀑布的顶端。为瀑布提供水源的小溪一开始看上去并不起眼,然而随即一座高达八米的壮丽瀑布便映入眼帘。寻迹往下可以明显地看到,主要的河道位于瀑布下的深谷中,如果源头的溪流要与之会合,则必须一路倾泻而下。

小溪从一座造型美观的铸铁观景桥下近乎垂直地转为瀑布,站在桥上可俯瞰三十米下的河道美景,真是一幅令人惊叹的画面!

FALLS OF FALLOCH

法洛赫瀑布

NN 338 208

At the principal fall, the water plunges over a rock lip into a basin, the main stream falling ten meters sheer. This is Rob Roy country and the basin is dubbed Rob Roy’s Bathtub. A smaller hollow, etched by a lesser arm of the stream in the wall of the basin is called Rob Roy’s Soap Dish although it is unlikely that the famous raider and cattle thief used that commodity when in these parts.

Many writers of whom Dorothy Wordsworth is perhaps the most famous, have celebrated the falls at Glen Falloch. She gives a memorable account of her walk to the falls with her brother, William, and Coleridge:

We sat down and heard, as if from the heart of the earth, the sound of torrents ascending out of the long hollow glen. To the eye all was motionless, a perfect stillness. The noise of waters did not appear to come from any particular quarter; it was everywhere, almost, one might say, as if ‘exhaled’ through the whole surface of the green earth. Glen Falloch, Coleridge has since told me, signifies the hidden vale; but William says that if we were to name it from our recollections of that time we should call it the Vale of Awful Sound.

Nowadays the falls are a notable wild swimming spot though not without danger particularly when the falls are in spate.

在最主要的一座瀑布那里,水流越过岩石的边缘坠入一个水潭中,河水的干流垂直下落达到十米。这里是罗布·罗伊(Rob Roy)的故乡,因此这个水潭被戏称为“罗布·罗伊的浴缸”。河水的一条支流在水潭壁上蚀刻出一个小凹洞,它被称为“罗布·罗伊的肥皂盒”,尽管这位著名的劫匪和偷牛贼当年不大可能在此处使用过肥皂这种日用品。

许多作家都在作品中赞美过法洛赫峡谷(Glen Falloch)中的瀑布,其中最有名的或许要属多萝西·华兹华斯(Dorothy Wordsworth)。她记录了与哥哥威廉(William)和柯勒律治(Coleridge)一同前往瀑布散步的难忘经历:

我们坐下来,听到激流从长长的空谷上升的声音,它仿佛来自地球的心脏。然而眼睛所看到的水面却是一动不动,一种完美的沉寂。水流的噪音似乎并不来自任何特定的区域,它几乎是无处不在。也许有人会说,它仿佛是从绿色大地的整个表面“散发”出来。柯勒律治后来告诉我,法洛赫峡谷标志着隐藏的山谷;但威廉却说,如果我们要根据当时的回忆给它命名,我们应该叫它“发出可怕声响的山谷”。

如今,这里的瀑布是一处著名的野外游泳点,当然这也并非毫无危险,尤其是在河水暴涨的时候。

Linn of Muick

穆伊克瀑布

NO 332 895
This is perhaps the most frequently visited and best known of all Deeside falls, apart of course, from the Linn of Dee itself. 

The Linn is an open fall where a substantial body of white water is hurled with considerable force by means of two leaps into a deep pool. A steep ‘salmon ladder’ pass has been hewn into the rocks on the west bank to enable salmon to climb what must be one of the most abrupt obstacles to be surmounted by this means. The Linn of Muick is ten meters high. Common folklore had it that the pool beneath the falls was supposed to be bottomless. 

The road climbs beyond the falls out of Linn Wood towards the Loch. On the opposite bank, the Princess Drive runs close to the river.

这或许是迪赛德(Deeside)地区所有的瀑布中最著名也是访客最多的,当然除了迪伊瀑布本身。

这是一座开阔的瀑布,白色的激流湍急汹涌,轰隆而下,接连形成两层水帘,最终坠入一口深潭。在西侧的河岸上,有一个在岩石上凿出的陡峭的“鲑鱼阶梯”通道,以便让鲑鱼能到达下游。然而对鲑鱼来说,通过“鲑鱼阶梯”一定是它们所跨越的最险峻的障碍物之一。穆伊克瀑布有十米高。有个流传甚广的民间传说声称,瀑布下的水池应该是个无底洞。

道路越过瀑布,通往瀑布树林(Linn Wood)外的穆伊克湖畔。对岸的公主路(Princess Drive)与河道非常贴近。

 

Wolfcleuch

head

伍尔夫克劳奇海德瀑布

NT 330 088

 

A trail leads from a car park beside the Althouse Burn which is a modest stream almost hidden in the woods. There is a great variety of bird life and at least one pair of herons nest there. The fall is on a tributary where the valley narrows and it is hidden in the trees until the last moment. A large vertical fall of the apron type, is impressive in winter, and can be spectacular after heavy rain when it is a twenty foot high curtain of roaring foam water. In the summer though it can be a quiet place with ferns and mosses, damp grasses and sunlight dappled through overhanging branches into slow pools below.

从停车场出发有一条沿着阿尔特豪斯小溪(Althouse Burn)的林间小道,这条不算太大的溪流几乎隐藏在树林中。在此处栖息的鸟类品种繁多,并且至少有一对鹭鸟会在这里筑巢。瀑布位于河谷收窄处的一条支流上,并且隐藏在树林中,直到面前才突然映入眼帘。这座围裙状的大型垂直瀑布在冬天颇为引人注目,尤其是在大雨过后,它那二十英尺高的夹着白沫的水帘咆哮着飞流直下,景象蔚为壮观。然而,在夏天它可能是个安静的地方,周围生长着各种蕨类植物、苔藓和湿润的青草,阳光透过低悬的树枝,在下方缓缓流淌的水潭上留下斑驳的光影。

Fall of Urrard

厄罗德瀑布

NN 925 650

A ancient stone in the grounds of Urrard House marks, if local tradition is to be believed, the spot where Dundee received his mortal wound at the Battle of Killiecrankie. Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82), the Victorian poet who almost completely lost his reason in middle life, was taken to Urrard House for a period of rest and recuperation. 

Near Urrard House is the beautiful Fall of Urrard.  The fall was frequently visited by the Victorians, but has since received very little notice in guide books since Black’s Guide of 1861. It is not marked on any map, and it is a very good example of the way in which scenes which delighted the Victorians, are neglected. Today the fall is marred somewhat by a hydroelectric scheme at the side of the falls.

如果当地的传说可信的话,厄罗德庄园(Urrard House)的花园中的一块古老的石头就是邓迪(Dundee)在基利克兰基之战(Battle of Killiecrankie)中受到致命伤的地点。维多利亚时期的诗人但丁·加百利·罗塞蒂(Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1828年-1882年)在中年时几乎完全失去了理智,当时他曾被带到厄罗德庄园进行过一段时间的休息和疗养。

在厄罗德庄园附近有一座美丽的厄罗德瀑布。在维多利亚时期,这里的游客曾经络绎不绝,但自从被收录在1861年的《布莱克旅游指南》(Black’s Guide)以后,后来的旅游指南就鲜少提到它。它没有在任何地图上被标出,这个例子也很好地说明了那些在维多利亚时期深受欢迎的风景名胜如今是如何备受冷落。现在,设于瀑布旁的水力发电工程多少有些破坏了原有的景观。

 

Spectacle E’E

眼镜眼睛瀑布

NS 715 434

The Spectacle E’e (eye) waterfalls – so named as a result of an incident involving a local man who fell in love with the miller’s daughter. The miller disapproved of the union and ended their relationship. As revenge the lad placed an eyeglass in the mill’s thatch, causing it to catch fire and the mill to be burned to the ground.

The Spectacle E’e is the most imposing fall in the basin of the Avon, it is approached from the village of Sandford, past Tweedie Mill. The Kype Water falls into the Avon at the edge of the carboniferous lavas that make up the hill country beyond Strathaven and forms a series of picturesque falls culminating in a fall of fifteen meters.

 “眼镜眼睛瀑布”得名于一个故事。一名当地人爱上了磨坊主的女儿,但受到磨坊主的反对,并拆散了他们的恋情。为了报复,这个小伙子在磨坊的茅草屋顶上放置了一块镜片,导致屋顶起火,而磨坊也被烧为灰烬。

“眼镜眼睛瀑布”是埃文河(Avon)流域最有气势的瀑布,需从桑福德(Sandford)村过去,途中要经过特威迪磨坊(Tweedie Mill)。石炭纪火山岩形成了斯特雷文(Strathaven)另一边的丘陵地区,而凯普河(Kype Water)就在火山岩的边缘处汇入埃文河,形成了一系列风景如画的瀑布,并最终在一座十五米高的瀑布处交汇。

The Grey Mare’s Fall

灰色母马瀑布

NN 187 625

This formidable waterfall was noticed in Anderson and other Victorian guide books, but it seems to have been neglected thereafter, either in the belief that the aluminium works established in 1908 has attenuated the fall to such an extent that it was no longer worth visiting, or in the belief that the works were such a blot on the landscape that it rendered the district unsuitable for tourists. Neither is the case. 

At snow melt, the fall is exceptionally fine and on a cold frosty night with a full moon it is indescribably beautiful because of its big scale and the confined nature of the gorge.

Paths lead up both banks of the burn—well away from its steep sides—to Mamore Lodge, the most precipitously situated retreat in Scotland. The Lodge was visited by Edward VIII and he would have undoubtedly visited these falls.

在安德森(Anderson)以及其他维多利亚时期的旅行指南中有介绍过这座令人惊叹的瀑布,但之后它似乎就淡出了人们的视线。这可能是出于两个原因:其一,有人认为1908年建立的铝厂削弱了瀑布的水流,以至于它不再值得一游;其二,有人认为工厂破坏了当地的景观,以至于该地区已不适合游客游览。但其实这两点都不成立。

瀑布在积雪融化时显得格外醉人,而由于其规模庞大加之峡谷的狭窄特性,在寒冷的霜冻之夜,瀑布在一轮明月的映衬下更是美不胜收。

在远离溪边峭壁的地方,溪流的两岸都有小径可到达马莫雷旅馆(Mamore Lodge),这里可谓是苏格兰地势最险峻的度假屋。爱德华八世国王曾到访过这家旅馆,他肯定也去游览了这些瀑布。

The Hermitage Falls

赫米蒂奇瀑布

NO 005 416

The principal feature of interest beside the falls on the river Braan below Rumbling Bridge, is the Summer House called Ossian’s Hall.

Opposite the entrance is a picture of Ossian playing upon his harp and singing songs of other times. The sides and ceiling of this inner apartment are lined with mirrors that reflect the waterfall under a variety of aspects. Many famous visitors have commented on this feature, most with praise but Wordsworth was more critical;

The mirrors afford various reflections of the whitened volume of water, as it pours down the cataract; like smoke, like flame, like boiling oil. This is a conceit of which the contriver was probably very proud, but, I must confess, that I could not help considering it with sentiments other than those of admiration.

There are wonderful woodland walks along the banks, with sycamore, oak and beech but the chief glory of this wood is a Douglas Fir which is reputed to be the tallest tree in Britain. 

在布拉恩(Braan)河上的隆隆桥(Rumbling Bridge)下方,位于瀑布旁最主要的景点就是叫做奥西恩府(Ossian’s Hall)的避暑别墅了。

在入口处的对面,有一幅描绘奥西恩正在弹奏竖琴并演唱古代歌曲的绘画。寓所里间的墙面与天花板都贴满了镜子,它们可从各种方位反射出瀑布的影像。许多著名的访客都对这一特色发表过评论,其中大部分为赞美之言,然而华兹华斯(Wordsworth)却对其颇有微词。

当瀑布倾泻而下时,这些镜子可从不同角度映射出潮水般的白色水流,如烟尘、如火焰、如滚油。它的发明者一定对这别出心裁的设计感到非常自豪,但我必须承认,当看到它时我心中不由得涌出各种情绪,却唯独没有赞美之情。

瀑布沿岸有多条绝佳的林间散步路线,树林中有悬铃木、橡树和山毛榉等树木,然而这片树林中最壮观的要数一棵花旗松,它被誉为英国最高大的树。

 

Glen Burn Falls

彭斯峡谷瀑布

NO189 059

The walk to Glen Burn Falls, takes you into Glen Vale, one the finest glens in the Lomonds. To get there you first descend to the Devil’s Burdens. This is a straight line of massive, weathered boulders. The Devil is supposed to have dropped these from his back as he flew over the Lomond Hills.

At the top end of the secluded valley, is John Knox’s Pulpit – a secret congregation spot at the time of the reformation. The site formed a natural amphitheatre from which a few carefully positioned guards would have been able to warn of any approaching lawmen. An angel with a drawn sword is said to have appeared on top of the pulpit, protecting the minister who spoke within. Whilst part of the cave is still there to be seen, the rocks that formed the pulpit were removed in 2004 because they were deemed unsafe.

A short distance from John Knox’s pulpit is the site of a beautiful secluded waterfall.  It is not the most breathtaking nor the most imposing, but it is one of the most picturesque of falls.  It is unusual in that you can walk right up to the fall, and bathe your feet in the shallow pool at its base. On a sunny day it is hard to beat for a beauty spot.

通往彭斯峡谷瀑布的步行路线将带您进入韦尔峡谷(Glen Vale),这是洛蒙德地区(the Lomonds)最秀美的峡谷之一。在到达那里之前,您会首先往下山的方向来到“魔鬼的包袱”(Devil’s Burdens)。这是一排巨大的已被风化的石块,呈直线排列。据说,魔鬼在飞越洛蒙德山区(Lomond Hills)的时候,从背上扔下了这些“包袱”。

在与世隔绝的山谷顶端,是“约翰·诺克斯的讲坛”(John Knox’s Pulpit),这是宗教改革运动时期的一个秘密集会点。这里形成了一个天然露天圆形剧场,在适当位置上站岗的卫兵们能从这里观察到逼近的执法官,从而发出预警。据说,一位手执出鞘宝剑的天使曾出现在讲坛之上,保护在其中发表演讲的牧师。尽管现在游客们仍能看到洞穴的一部分,但构成讲坛的石块已在2004年被搬走,因为它们被认为是不安全的。

在“约翰·诺克斯的讲坛”不远处,有一座美丽而幽静的瀑布。它并非最壮观的,也不是最有气势的,但却是最风景如画的瀑布之一。您可以走到瀑布跟前,在它底下的浅水池中泡脚,这是一种不同寻常的体验。在阳光明媚的日子,这里的美景简直无与伦比。

 

Alva Glen

阿尔瓦峡谷

NS 835 977

Alva Glen is the finest of the four main Ochil Glens. Every year the waterfalls in the glen are illuminated by coloured lights. These Alva Glen illuminations have been attracting people from all over Scotland for many years.

The highlights of the glen include the 23m Craighorn Fall and the Big Fall, a hidden waterfall that cascades magically into the Smuggler’s Cave. 

Beyond the impressive Craighorn Fall, a well-marked miners’ track leads down Silver Glen with its famous old mines. These mines were once assayed by Sir Isaac Newton, when he was Master of the Mint, as he wanted to determine the quality of the silver for himself. 

There are four noteworthy falls in Silver Glen. Other falls in the neighbourhood of Alva include those in Balquharn Glen, which are the most difficult and awkward to access in the Ochil Glens.

阿尔瓦峡谷是奥奇尔峡谷群(Ochil Glens)的四大峡谷中最美的一个。每年,峡谷中的多个瀑布都会被彩灯照亮。多年来,这些阿尔瓦峡谷灯光表演都吸引了苏格兰各地的人们来此参观。

峡谷中的亮点包括23米高的克莱格豪恩瀑布(Craighorn Fall)和大瀑布(Big Fall),这座地处隐蔽的瀑布飞流直下,神一般地流入“走私者的洞穴”(Smuggler’s Cave)。

在令人赞叹的克莱格豪恩瀑布的另一边,有一条十分显著的矿工轨道向下通往有着多个著名老矿井的银色峡谷(Silver Glen)。在担任皇家铸币厂厂长一职时,艾萨克·牛顿爵士(Sir Isaac Newton)曾检测过这些矿井,因为他想亲自确定银的质量。

在银色峡谷中有四座值得一游的瀑布。阿尔瓦附近的其他瀑布包括巴尔库哈恩峡谷(Balquharn Glen)中的几座,它们是奥奇尔峡谷群中最难也是最不便到达的瀑布。

WALKS & WATERFALLS

苏格兰的 散步路径与瀑布